Two days of reflection around the challenges of mining and the occupation of rural land in Côte d’Ivoire


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From November 25 to 26, 2021, national meetings on rural land were held in Abidjan. These meetings organized by Inades-Formation and its partners aimed to initiate the debate around mining and rural land.

In agricultural countries like Côte d’Ivoire, land is a source of wealth both for the State and for private individuals. It is highly coveted and subject to competition for its acquisition or control.

Côte d’Ivoire has therefore experienced and continues to experience land disputes that have often degenerated into community disputes.

To secure land rights and transactions taking place in the rural land domain, the Ivorian State has adopted law n°98-750 of December 23, 1998 relating to the rural land domain. Yet despite this law and the efforts of the government and development organizations, the issue of land tenure security is far from resolved and is even struggling to move forward.

In addition, the country has entered in recent years into intense mining activities in different parts of the country, which in addition to agricultural demands increases the pressure on land. Mining leads to environmental and societal upheavals beyond comparison with agriculture, which it tends to compete with.

It is therefore to lift the veil on this alarming reality that Inades-Formation and its partners ALERTE-Foncier, rural land agency (AFOR), the legal laboratory of the Alassane Ouattara University of Bouaké organized the national conference on land rural, from November 25 to 26, 2021.

With the theme “ The rural land domain and mining ”, these meetings were intended to initiate a citizen debate on the issues and rural land dynamics linked to mining, in all their diversity.

They are part of a multidisciplinary perspective, including legal, sociological, economic, geographical, historical, anthropological, etc. and an approach that is both theoretical and empirical.

Many actors from the agricultural and mining sectors and civil society organizations took part in these meetings which were held at the Latrille Events space in Abidjan Cocody.

From the opening ceremony, the decor is set.

Mr. Sena ADESSOU, Secretary General of Inades-Formation and president of the strategic coordination group of the ALERTE-Foncier platform, explained the challenges of these meetings and specified that the conclusions of the meetings will be presented, in the form of recommendations, to decision-makers. for optimized governance of areas of the rural land domain hosting or conducive to mining activities.

For his part Mr. Mathias Koffi, Director of Operations of AFOR, representing the Director General of AFOR, before opening the meeting, presented the mission of his agency, in particular to accelerate all the processes of rural land tenure security undertaken by the state of Côte d’Ivoire. In his speech, he wondered about the effectiveness of the provisions taken in the mining code or in the forest code to take into account the existence of customary land rights and their application. He lamented that very few lands have been registered and have land certificates. 12,000 rural land certificates issued out of 1,000,000 expected.

Mr. Sena Adessou, SG of Inades-Formation

The opening ceremony was followed by an inaugural presentation led by Mr. N’GUESSAN Kouassi, Mining Engineer, representing the General Directorate of Mines and Geology, on the theme “Mining Activities and Rural Land : Indemnification/Compensation”.

The meetings were structured around the following four panels :

  • Panel 1 : “Issues of securing land in the rural land domain for the development of mining activities” with four presentations ;
  • Panel 2 : ”  What interactions between land law, mining law and environmental law ?  ” with three presentations;
  • Panel 3 : “ Impacts of agriculture and mining cohabitation on social cohesion and sustainable development ” with three presentations ;
  • Panel 4 : “ Some solutions to improve the formalization of customary land rights in mining areas ” with three presentations.

These panels were led by land experts, jurists, anthropologists, sociologists, communicators, and ministries and public agencies involved in land management. The various presentations and exchanges made it possible to review the conditions and consequences of the current practice of legal and illegal mining activity.

One of the panels
A panelist

The observation is clear : mining, in addition to its financial advantages for the state and certain categories of the population, has serious consequences in the areas where it is practiced, and even more so when it is clandestine. destroys land and crops, reduces agricultural labor and therefore reduces food and non-food agricultural resources, leads to forced population displacements, disintegrates social organization, provokes conflicts, etc.

Most of the time, access to land resources takes place in an informal framework that is neither regulated nor controlled, and the provisions of the Mining Code are not respected.

village chiefs

The testimonies of village chiefs and victims of clandestine gold panning did not say the opposite in their testimony, launching a cry of distress for better regulation and control of the sector.

One of the panelists, speaking of the institutional framework, wondered about the coherence of agricultural policies which grant a crucial role to agriculture in the eradication of poverty and the policy of promotion of the mining sector.


The meetings ended with a special panel which made it possible to formulate recommendations to be addressed to decision-makers.

Among these recommendations are:

  • Securing rural lands in order to better assert customary land rights ;
  • Facilitate the obtaining of the certificate and the land title through their free in particular;
  • Develop a frank collaboration between the Ministry of Mines and that of Water and Forests;
  • Reduce the impacts of mining activity on forests by implementing and monitoring the results of environmental assessments ;
  • Rehabilitate forests destroyed by mining ;
  • Take into account all the concerns of local populations in relation to mining ;
  • Organize a broad public awareness campaign ;
  • Encourage the constitution of voluntary nature reserves by the populations
  • Improve the management of local mining development committees (CDLM) and carry out an audit ;
  • Set up land use plans both at national and local level, identifying land with high agricultural potential ;
  • Channel artisanal gold miners to facilitate soil rehabilitation ;
  • Rural populations must be preserved against the anarchic occupations of mining ;
  • Involve village chiefs in the policy to fight against illegal gold mining ;
  • The effective application of the mining code.

The participants said they were satisfied with the information received and the exchanges. However, one of the questions raised at the meeting remains unanswered : is clandestine gold panning a sub-sector to be eliminated or organised ?

Family photo


Other presses:


Côte d’Ivoire-AIP/ Les assises nationales sur le foncier rural 2021 ouvertes à Abidjan


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ABCD2 project

Projet ABCD-Un élève un arbre COP28

1. Project title

Supporting the scaling-up of community experiences and citizen monitoring of public policies in response to climate change in sub-Saharan Africa (ABCD 2 project)

2. Summary

The project to scale up community experiences and dynamics of citizen monitoring of public policies in the face of climate change in sub-Saharan Africa is the continuation of an initial project to capitalize on these experiences.

In fact, in 2022, with funding from the Basque Agency for Development Cooperation (ABCD), Inades-Formation carried out the project “Study-capitalization of best practices in the face of the challenges of climate change and local governance in sub-Saharan Africa “This project capitalized on 50 experiences, including 31 on adaptation to climate change and 19 on governance, in 11 sub-Saharan African countries.

Based on the results of this pilot project, we have been able to identify and capitalize on some of the living realities of community efforts to combat the problems posed by climate change in Africa. They have been developed by a variety of players, including public services specializing in environmental and climate change management, civil society organizations and farmers’ organizations.

This second phase of the project, which will run for 30 months (2022-2024), aims to (i) scale up these good experiences developed by communities in African countries, in terms of adaptation, mitigation and resilience to climate change and of (ii) support the dynamics of citizen monitoring of the associated policy and regulatory frameworks.

3. General objective

Contribute to the fight against global warming, through the large-scale promotion of local experiences and concerted policy measures relating to adaptation, mitigation and resilience mechanisms for vulnerable populations, especially rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa.

4. Specific objectives

  • Scale up the good experiences developed by communities in African countries, in terms of adaptation, mitigation and resilience in the face of climate change.
  • Support the dynamics of citizen monitoring of related policy and regulatory frameworks

5. Completion period: June 2022 to November 2024

6. Project area

The project is being carried out in 11 countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya, DR Congo, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania and Togo.

7. Financial partner

Basque Agency for Cooperation and Development (ABCD)

9. Implementation partners

17 local development organizations with projects that will replicate the good experiences capitalized on in phase 1 of the project. They were selected on the basis of the evaluation criteria of effectiveness, efficiency, relevance, sustainability and gender equity, following a call for projects launched by Inades-Formation.

List of organizations and their projects



Project title


Burkina Faso


Strengthening women’s resilience to climate change by promoting agroecological practices. Case study of the agroecological farm run by the women of the Union des Groupements Féminins Ce Dwane Nyee (UGF/CDN), Sanguie province, Centre West region, Burkina Faso.


Burkina Faso

Inades-Formation Burkina

Strengthening eco-citizenship through environmental education for pupils in the commune of Arbollé in the northern region of Burkina Faso



Inades-Formation Burundi

Promoting environmental education in schools to tackle climate change




Promotion of Community Initiatives to Protect Common Interest Resources in Cameroon


Côte d’Ivoire


One pupil, one tree to combat coastal erosion and the disappearance of mangroves


DR Congo

UWAKI North Kivu

Projet d’appui à la valorisation des semences paysannes dans les unions de Luofu, Kipese et Lubero en territoire de Lubero au Nord-Kivu / RDC. Inspired by the experience of the Union des groupements Naam de Koumbri in Burkina Faso


DR Congo


Grassroots environmental education to tackle climate change in the Kaziba chiefdom in DR Congo



Inades-Formation Kenya

The scaling up of experiences developed by communities and the dynamics of school-based re-afforestation initiatives to address climate change in Kenya



RECOR Rwanda

Affordable solar pumps for small-scale irrigation, a revolutionary technology to help farmers increase their resilience capacity to climate change issues in Rwanda



Inades-Formation Rwanda

Replication of the practice of grafting fruit trees to increase the resilience of farmers in the Bugesera district to climate change.




Project to promote agro-biodiversity conservation through capacity building and documentation of local seed varieties in Senegal



Inades-Formation Tanzania

Promotion of community seed banks for the conservation of agro-biodiversity through capacity building and documentation of local seed varieties in Kondoa and Chemba Districts of Dodoma Region, Tanzania”.



Inades-Formation Chad

Promotion of seed banks, Scaling up the Seeds Savers Network /Kenya experience




Expand the “One student, one tree” project developed by ACOSYF RD Congo



APAD International Togo

The governance of protected areas: The case of the Agou mountainsides in Togo



Inades-Formation Togo

Continuous and competitive integrated family farming systems for farmer resilience to climate change in Tchamba 2 commune



JVE Togo

Governance of local seed systems among women’s cooperatives in the Assimé classified forest for climate resilience

ACF-AO project

WhatsApp Image 2023-08-24 at 15.13.12

1. Project title

Feminist Climate Action Project – West Africa ACF-AO

2. Summary

The “Feminist Climate Action in West Africa” project is being implemented in Côte d’Ivoire to contribute effectively to the resilience and fight against the effects of climate change by ecologically sensitive coastal and island communities, with a particular focus on rural women and young people.

It will build the capacity of communities, particularly women and young people, to implement strategies to protect biodiversity and ecosystems, notably through the adoption of agroecological practices, energy diversification and advocacy. It will strengthen the participation of rural women and young people in local governance of biodiversity and climate action.

Funded by Global Affairs Canada | Affaires mondiales Canada, the ACF AO project is taking place in Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal and Togo.

It is managed in Côte d’Ivoire by SUCO and Inades-Formation – Secrétariat Général.

3. Background

Climate change threatens to push nearly a million more Ivorians into extreme poverty, increase the risk of water stress, with more and more regions expected to see more than 10% of their population in water shortage, and increase the resurgence of air- and water-related diseases among susceptible populations (Nationally Determined Contributions, CDN-COTE D’IVOIRE, March 2022). According to the World Bank, by 2050, Côte d’Ivoire will face an average temperature rise of two degrees Celsius, greater rainfall variability and a 30 cm rise in sea level along the coast (World Bank, 2018a).

Climate change affects all development sectors. However, differences between men and women in their relationship with their environment, differences in the composition of economic sectors and unequal access to resources and decision-making will amplify the impacts of climate change on certain categories of the population, including women.

The “Feminist Climate Action in West Africa” project is a response to this reality.

4. General objective

Strengthening climate change adaptation by rural and indigenous women and young people in ecologically sensitive coastal and island regions of Côte d’Ivoire.

5. Specific objectives

  • Increase the influence of rural and indigenous women and young people in climate policy advocacy and in the governance of high-biodiversity ecosystems vulnerable to climate change.
  • Increase the adoption of nature-based solutions such as agroecology, ecosystem and biodiversity protection and restoration, for climate change adaptation, by rural and indigenous women and young people.
  • Strengthen the climate resilience of rural and indigenous women and young people through economic empowerment and energy diversification.

6. Completion date: 2023 - 2026

7. Target audience / beneficiaries: Young people 41% & Rural and indigenous women 59%.

8. Project area

Adiaké, Grand-Bassam, Jacqueville and Grand-Lahou.

9. Project actions

Diagnose the obstacles and facilitating factors for the active participation of target groups in biodiversity and climate management decision-making bodies;

Participatory diagnoses carried out by local authorities on the climatic vulnerability of ecosystems and identification of gender-sensitive adaptation measures and strategies;

Training for rural and indigenous women and young people to strengthen and maintain their participation in decision-making bodies;

Training of beneficiaries on climate and biodiversity conservation policies;

Participating communities receive training in business development, inclusive value chains, cooperative management, and direct marketing.

Village awareness-raising and training workshops on biodiversity-friendly and gender-sensitive mitigation and adaptation measures carried out in participating communities.

Ecosystem management and development plans designed and implemented in participating communities.

Technical and financial support to participating communities for the implementation of climate-resilient agroecological practices (micro-breeding, agroforestry, market gardening, beekeeping and oyster farming); to strengthen access to productive water, agricultural inputs and equipment; for the installation of tree nurseries and reforestation of coastal ecosystems.

Solar and eco-energy equipment for food production, processing and preservation, and training in equipment use and maintenance.

Women and youth networking and advocacy

Support and strengthening of savings and credit systems provided to women’s groups.

10. Technical and financial partners

Project funded by Affaire Mondiale Canada and implemented by INTERPARES, SUCO and their partners, including Inades-Formation – Secrétariat Général pour la Cote d’Ivoire.



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Serving the Common Good


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2. Why make a donation?

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Do you want to support Inades-Formation in its economic and social development actions for the rural world? If so, then take action through FondAfrica by making a donation.